Step 9. Editing
Film Editing is part of the creative post-production processes of filmmaking. It involves the selection and combining of shots into sequences and ultimately creating a finished motion picture. Film editing is an art therefore you can never fully master your skills. Martin Scorsese has compared it to sculpting a movie into shape. It is one of the more creative(and therefore more complicated) steps in the filmmaking process. Here’s a few helpful tips that can help anyone from the budding film editor to the seasoned veteran better his/her craft.
i. Cut Tight
The best editing technique is to cut tight between scenes without becoming too jumpy. This can be done by taking out unnecessary pauses between actors’ dialogue delivery of lines or sometimes simply tightening the gaps between dialogue sentences through well-placed cutaway scenes.
It is a good rule of thumb to start with a cut that is precise from the beginning opposed to starting with a general first pass then cutting it down from there. If your first cut comes in at 3 minutes, you should be able to take it down to 2 minutes by tightening the shots. If your first cut comes in at 10 minutes and you are aiming for two minutes you have a nightmare on your hands.
ii. Matched Action
Matched action is something many editors consider second nature, yet many times there are numerous instances in every film where a continuity issue could have been solved with a simple exercise in matched action editing.
Matching actors’ hand positions, use of props, eyelines and stage position from one cut to another are all considered matching action. As an editor your job is make the cuts that drive the emotion in the scene or move the story along.
Many industry professionals feel that if you keep the audience engaged in the story, mistakes in matched action can slip by unnoticed. A good editor will discover the fine line between driving emotion and technical matched action.
iii. Do not cut back to the same angle
If you happen to have a choice of different camera angles, do not feel you need to cut back to the same angle you had in the previous shot. There are times when this is unavoidable such as in dialogue scenes with only two angles; but if by chance the director shot different takes with different framing, make an effort to use a variety of them.
Try to exercise the 30-degree rule: the camera should move at least 30 degrees between shots of the same subject occurring in succession. Be careful not to violate the 180-degree rule.
iv. Save longer version along the way
When cutting down film, it’s a good idea to duplicate sequences along the way, renaming them with sequential numbers (e.g. intro pass dump, intro pass 1, intro pass 2… etc.) The dump sequence is the initial footage and audio. Each sequential pass is shorter than the previous. The theory behind this being if you ever need to retrieve a clip or sound bite from a previous cut, it is there ready and waiting.
v. Moving camera shots
Moving the camera around is a key part of action sequences. Movement can be anything from a camera on a dolly to handheld motion. In action scenes this is designed to create a level of tension with the audience. I feel the best way to create this tension is by cutting on movement, so that the camera is in constant motion from one cut to the next.
Some directors may disagree with this and will want the camera to start and stop before making the cut. Both methods work, it just depends on the circumstances when deciding which one to go with.
vi. B-roll in threes
It is not uncommon for a scene to call for cutaway shots
When this scenario arises, it is a good rule to group three cutaway inserts together. These inserts should be around two seconds long. A POV insert would work well in threes because it give the audience a good general idea of the surroundings the character is in. This editing technique tends to mimic our real world experience of turning our head to see what is around us.
These are basic tips which can drastically improve your film. But really, as a director, you need to be careful about coverage when shooting, so that the editor can have good material to start sculpting from.
Step 10. Titles and graphics
My guess is you’ll want to thank every single relative and friend you can think of because you want them to know you made a movie. A good rule to follow is to only put the names of people into the credits who actually contributed time and effort to the film. And keep all those names to the very end of the film in something we call the rear title crawl.
Step 11. Music
You can’t put anyone’s music into a film without their written permission. Here’s the urban myth: just because your actor passes someone on the street with a ghetto blaster playing a Beatles song does not give you permission to put the song into your movie, even if it is being broadcast on a commercial radio station.