The 21st century is the age of the image. Thinking critically about film, the most common medium of the moving image, is going to be a key asset. Film is a very young medium, and it’s evolving extremely fast. It influences all other visual mediums: television, virtual reality, gaming…

Visual mediums

In the hundred-year history of film, a breakthrough has come every so often that changed everything. First there was the moving image itself -or the illusion thereof, created by putting 24 still images one after the other in one second. Then there was the cut. It was about giving meaning to two images one after the other in order to express an idea. Then came the addition of sound, and then came colour. In recent years, 3D came adding another technical improvement (and a premium for studios to rake in the dollar bills). Those incremental steps are what has made film the medium that it is today.

The advent of computing in filmmaking in the last quarter of the twentieth century added a new dimension to filmmaking. It opened up new horizons for the medium, with companies like George Lucas’s Industrial Light & Magic and Pixar -just to name the behemoths.

The main brains in that branch of the American industry were always crossing over from one to the other. Ed Catmull, who is now President of Pixar and Walt Disney Animation was once hired by George Lucas from the New York Institute of Technology for his computer division, which later spun off into Pixar upon investment from Steve Jobs (another man who revolutionised computing at the same time).

Film is influencing virtual reality. Steven Spielberg -known to be an avid gamer and tech buff – has personally invested in virtual reality companies and is planning to create promotional VR content for his next feature, Robopocalypse. Lucasfilm is doing the same for The Last Jedi.

Virtual reality has tremendous implications for story viewing but has also already seen great applications of interactive narratives. Gaming is a medium that filmmakers should definitely take a closer look at.

Episodic storytelling

Games are built with an overall goal, and episodic missions help the main character that you’re playing as reach that goal. The closest we filmmakers have to game in terms of how the storytelling develops are television series. Ideally, a television series will have an overall arc over the course of a season, and individual arcs in each episode which will advance the overall plot to some degree – and cliffhangers are preferred. Each mission will have to be different in order to get the character closer to their goal and raise the stakes.

This is a structure to remember when you’re developing a series– even more so for a web-series, as the web has such a plethora of content, you need to hook people in and make them beg for more. This works for movies as well, albeit on a smaller scale.


An inescapable aspect of a video game is that the player has to embody a character on a mission. The character’s goal has to be clearly defined, and each individual step has to be clearly explained as well, especially in how it relates to the larger goal.

The episodes allow for development of that character, but a well-written video game, as well as a well-written movie or series, will have to have a compelling, engaging protagonist.

Characters are, of course, defined by their physical traits. Yet any screenwriter will tell you that a great character is defined by their action.


Video games are all about action. A character has to actually do something in order to achieve a goal and go to the next level. The character has to overcome weaknesses and follow a plan. Luke and the rebellion had to plan the attack on the Death Star, and they emphasized how slim the chances were. Isn’t it a wonder, then, that he managed to achieve that extraordinary goal by finally embracing his true identity and fate, which he refused to in the beginning of his adventure?

That’s what Michael Tierno in his classic book Aristotle’s Poetics for Screenwriters describes as the “action-idea”, which will be the driving force of the narrative. It will make the protagonist active, and will help us root for them not just generally, but will also get us to root for them to do something specific.

This is what will find its way into your logline as well. Example: despite initially refusing to take over as Godfather, Michael Corleone will have to embrace his destiny by taking revenge for his father’s death. “Taking revenge” is the action, and destiny is the theme (or at least one of them).

And so…

The film medium is bridging into video game terrain now with interactive filmmaking (which is a fascinating experience). Virtual reality is still quite experimental but we’re discovering new ways of displaying narratives that are based on the film grammar, and some VR experiences are game-induced. Those mediums steal from one another as they all are visual storytelling experiences. The key is to give a goal and a character to root for. Which medium you apply it to is up to you.



Baptiste is a writer hailing from the part of France where it is always sunny. At Raindance, he started as a marketing intern for the 23rd Raindance Film Festival in 2015, then joined the London team in 2016 as the Raindance Postgraduate Degree Registrar. He is passionate about diversity in film, his dissertation topic for his Master's Degree in Management, which he writes about extensively. He is also a writer and producer, founder of Bubble Wrap Creations.